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Depression: Depression & Related Conditions

Major Depressive Disorder and Related Conditions

Depression Resources

Everyone has days where they feel blah, down, or sad. Typically, these feelings disappear after a day or two, particularly if circumstances change for the better. People experiencing the temporary "blues" don't feel a sense of crushing hopelessness or helplessness, and are able, for the most part, to continue to engage in regular activities. For people dealing with depressive disorders, negative feelings linger, intensify, and often become crippling. With normal sadness, people are still able to experience pleasure when positive events happen. With depressive disorders, the hopelessness and failure stay even when good things are happening. Other, more intense sorts of symptoms, such as suicidal thoughts and hallucinations (e.g., hearing voices), are also often present. These symptoms suggest that serious varieties of depression may be present, including the subject of this center: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or (more informally), Major Depression. Major Depression.

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Fast Facts: Learn! Fast!

What is depression?

  • Major Depressive Disorder is a common yet serious medical condition that affects both the mind and body.
  • It creates physical (body), psychological (mind), and social symptoms.
  • Informally, we often use the term "depression" to describe general sadness. The term Major Depressive Disorder is defined by a formal set of medical criteria which describe symptoms that must be present before the label may be appropriately used.
  • According to the World Health Organization, depression is a common illness worldwide, with an estimated 15% of people affected.
  • Depressive disorders are a leading cause of absenteeism and lost productivity.
  • We also know that people who are depressed cannot simply will themselves to snap out of it. Getting better often requires appropriate treatment.

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What are the symptoms of depression?

  • Symptoms can vary a great deal from one person to the next. Typical symptoms include:
    • Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
    • Being tired and have no energy
    • A dramatic change in appetite resulting in weight loss or gain
    • Feelings of worthlessness, self-hate, and guilt
    • Inability to concentrate, think clearly, or make decisions
    • Agitation, restlessness, and irritability
    • Inactivity and withdrawal from typical pleasurable activities
    • Feelings of hopelessness and helplessness
    • Thoughts of suicide or death
  • Symptoms can also change over time, such as with someone who is initially withdrawn and sad becoming very frustrated and irritable as a result of decreased sleep and the inability to accomplish simple tasks or make decisions.
  • When depression is severe, people may even experience symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions.

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What are the causes of depression?

  • The biopsychosocial model says that biological, psychological and social factors are all interlinked causes of depression.
  • Depression has been linked to problems or imbalances in the brain with regard to the neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
  • A person who has a parent or sibling with depression is almost three times more likely to develop Major Depression than someone with no history of depression in their parents or siblings, which suggests that genetics play a role in the causes of depression.
  • Long-term stress that lasts for a year or more can affect the body's immune system and lead to an increased risk of developing physical illnesses and an increased likelihood of becoming depressed.
  • Psychological factors influencing depression include negative patterns of thinking, low coping skills, judgment problems, and difficulty in understanding and expressing emotions.
  • Personality factors, history and early experiences; and relationships with others are seen as important factors in causing depression.
  • People can also become depressed as a result of social factors such as: experiencing traumatic situations (a family death, divorce, job loss, abusive relationship, etc.), lack of social support/relationships, or harassment (bullying).

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When should I seek help for depression?

  • If your depressed mood lasts for more than two weeks, or is seriously interfering with your ability to function at work, with your family, and in your social life, you should consult with a mental health professional as soon as possible.
  • If you find yourself thinking seriously about suicide, you should make an appointment with a mental health doctor (a psychiatrist, or psychologist) as soon as you can.
  • If you are feeling like you will commit suicide within hours or days unless you receive some relief, then skip making an appointment with a doctor and go immediately to your local hospital emergency room and tell them there that you are feeling suicidal.

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How is depression diagnosed?

  • The diagnosis process often starts with a visit to a primary care doctor who may ask simple questions about your feelings and experiences.
  • A physical examination, medical history and lab tests will be done to determine if your depression is related to a physical condition.
  • If a physical condition is ruled out, then you should see a mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist, who will talk with you to learn more about your current problems and symptoms, as well as to obtain a complete history of previous symptoms, a family history, a history of significant stressful life events, and information concerning your lifestyle, social support, alcohol or drug use, and any suicidal thoughts or tendencies you may be experiencing.
  • In order to compare your symptoms to those of other people in order to determine the severity of your symptoms, you may be asked to complete one or more standardized questionnaire forms.

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How is depression treated?

  • It is important to know that depression is a HIGHLY treatable condition.
  • There is no single therapy that works equally well for every depressed person.
  • Depression is most often treated with a combination of medication and psychotherapy.
  • Antidepressants help with some of the brain chemistry causes of depression. Typically this will include either a SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), such as Prozac, Zoloft, or Paxil, or a SNRI (serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), such as Wellbutrin or Effexor.
  • Psychotherapy helps people understand and then change the behavioral, cognitive and social patterns that cause or contribute to the depressed mood.
  • More severe cases of depression may require different and more frequent therapy than milder cases.
  • People with severe depression who may be engaging in self-destructive behavior, such as attempting suicide, refusing to eat, refusing to get out of bed, or may be showing signs of psychotic behavior, such as hallucinations and delusions, may require inpatient hospitalization.
  • People sometimes turn to Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) techniques such as traditional Chinese Medicine, Acupuncture, Homeopathy, and Herbal Therapy for relief from their symptoms. Very few of these approaches have been tested in clinical trials for depression, so there is often little scientific evidence to support these practices.
  • One of the best studied and most famous CAM remedies for depression is St. John's Wort, which is an herbal preparation of a plant extract. Research does support this as a stand-alone alternative treatment for depression and in parts of Europe this herb is often the preferred remedy for treating depression.
  • If you are interested in CAM approaches, the best plan is to consult with a qualified CAM practitioner who can help determine which combination of treatments, and in what dosages, would be most beneficial for you.

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Are there self-help methods for depression?

  • Self-help approaches to treating depression are best thought of as additions to professional treatments.
  • People should not delay treating depression professionally, or attempt to treat it solely on their own.
  • The more that you take an active role in helping yourself recover, the better your chances of recovery are likely to be.
  • It is important to accept your diagnosis and to take the medications and other therapies that have been prescribed for you regularly.
  • Accept invitations to social events and maintain your typical social schedule as best you can even if you are not enjoying it as much as you used to.
  • One way to reduce the amount of stress you experience is to prioritize the demands you are facing and then to do only the most pressing tasks.
  • Talk about what is bothering you with a therapist or with friends or family members. If you don't feel comfortable talking, then keep a journal and vent through writing.
  • Regular physical exercise is thought to have an antidepressant effect.
  • One way to regain a sense of control is to educate yourself about your illness.
  • Choosing to make positive improvements in your sleep, eating, drug and alcohol use, exercise, social and spiritual habits can end up helping you improve your mood.

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News Articles

  • Depression Inversely Linked to Body Composition in Teens

    There is an inverse correlation for major depressive disorder severity with measures of body composition among older adolescents, while a positive association is seen for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, according to a study published online June 16 in Pediatrics. More...

  • Review: Depression Screening As Inpatient Important, Feasible

    Depression affects about one-third of hospital patients and could slow their recovery, according to research published recently in the Journal of Hospital Medicine. More...

  • Depression Can Slow Hospital Patients' Recovery: Study

    Screening for the mood disorder is important for successful healing, psychiatrist says. More...

  • Antidepressants During Pregnancy Safe for Baby: Study

    It finds newborns aren't more likely to be irritable, hard to feed or sleepless. More...

  • Chronic Pain Common in Adults With Depression, Anxiety

    Study finds the double whammy is a significant and growing health problem. More...

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    • What You Need to Know About Antidepressants

      They work by affecting brain chemicals that regulate mood, FDA explains. More...

    • APA: Internet-Based CBT Can Be Helpful in Depression

      Online cognitive behavior therapy programs can help some people with mild or moderate depression, according to research presented recently at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, held from May 20 to 24 in San Diego. More...

    • Can Online Treatment Replace Your Therapist?

      For people with mild or moderate depression, web-based versions might help, study finds. More...

    • Depression Often a Precursor to Falls in Elderly People

      But study found proper dose of psychiatric drugs might erase that danger. More...

    • Overweight in Childhood May Up Lifetime Risk of Depression

      Overweight or obesity in youth may have long-lasting repercussions for psychological health, according to a study presented at the European Congress on Obesity, held from May 17 to 20 in Porto, Portugal. More...

    • Heavy Kids Face Triple the Odds for Depression in Adulthood

      Risk was 4 times greater if they were also overweight as adults, study finds. More...

    • Obesity, Sex Predict Remission for Antidepressant Medications

      Obesity and sex are differential predictors of acute remission for commonly used antidepressant medications, according to a study published in the March-April issue of Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry. More...

    • Gender Differences in Depression Tend to Appear About Age 12

      Gender differences in depression diagnosis and symptoms start to appear around the age of 12, according to research published online April 27 in the Psychological Bulletin. More...

    • Depression's Gender Gap Shows Up in Pre-Teen Years

      Still unclear why more women than men affected by the disorder, researcher says. More...

    • Studies Question Link Between Mom's Antidepressant Use, Autism in Kids

      After accounting for other factors that raise chances of the disorder, the increased risk disappeared. More...

    • Mortality Up With Depression Just Before Breast Cancer Diagnosis

      Women with newly-developed depression before a breast cancer diagnosis have a modestly, but significantly, increased risk for death, according to a study published online April 7 in Cancer. More...

    • Depressive Disorders Up With Antimuscarinics for OAB

      Women with overactive bladder syndrome treated with antimuscarinics have increased subsequent risk of depressive disorder, according to a study published online April 5 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. More...

    • Trauma as a Teen May Boost Depression Risk Around Menopause

      Likelihood was more than twice as high, study reports. More...

    • Blood Test Promising for ID of Early Depression, Schizophrenia

      The first objective, physiological marker for two major psychiatric disorders has been developed, according to a study published online March 13 in Experimental Physiology. More...

    • Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia

      A screen is still in development stages but could be important, especially for adolescents, experts say. More...

    • Hold That Pose: Yoga May Ease Tough Depression

      Study finds weekly sessions, plus deep breathing, helped ease cases when medications failed. More...

    • Depression May Hasten Death in Years After Heart Diagnosis

      Mental health screening recommended over the long term, study suggests. More...

    • Antidepressant Efficacy Varies for Depressive Symptom Clusters

      Antidepressant treatment efficacy varies for empirically-defined clusters of symptoms, according to a study published online Feb. 22 in JAMA Psychiatry. More...

    • Depressed Psoriasis Patients at Higher Risk of Psoriatic Arthritis

      Patients with psoriasis who also have depression may face a much higher risk for psoriatic arthritis, according to a study published online Feb. 22 in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology. More...

    • Internet-Based CBT Effective for Depressive Symptoms

      Self-guided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy is effective for treating adults with depressive symptoms, according to a review published online Feb. 22 in JAMA Psychiatry. More...

    • Can Depression Up Odds for Arthritis Linked to Psoriasis?

      Mood disorder may increase inflammation throughout the body, researcher says. More...

    • Postpartum Depressive Symptoms Fell in 2004 to 2012

      From 2004 to 2012 there was a decrease in postpartum depressive symptoms, according to research published in the Feb. 17 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. More...

    • Hey Fellas, Depression Can Strike New Dads, Too

      Men who are stressed or in poor health seem to be at special risk, study shows. More...

    • Depression Often Untreated in Dialysis Patients

      Sometimes it's the kidney doctors who nix antidepressants, study finds. More...

    • GDM Found to Increase Risk for Postpartum Depression

      Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may increase a first-time mother's risk of postpartum depression, and a history of maternal depression along with GDM further increases that risk, according to a study published online Jan. 18 in Depression and Anxiety. More...

    • Postpartum Depression Affects New Dads, Too

      Certain men at greater risk, doctors say. More...

    • Panic Disorder May Up Odds of Depression Rx Side Effects

      For patients with chronic depression, comorbid panic disorder is associated with increased likelihood of side effects during treatment, according to a study published online Jan. 3 in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. More...

    • Sometimes the Holidays Aren't Always Jolly

      Take steps to prevent depression, and learn to spot signs that you may need help. More...

    • Pilots Suffer Depression, Suicidal Thoughts at Fairly High Rates

      More than one-tenth of professional airline pilots may suffer from depression, according to research published online Dec. 15 in Environmental Health. More...

    • More Than 1 in 10 Pilots Suffer From Depression, Survey Finds

      Report highlights need for accurate screening. More...

    • Self-Care Tools Cut Depression in AMD, Diabetic Retinopathy

      Self-care tools can reduce depressive symptoms in patients with age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy, according to a study published online Dec. 7 in Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology. More...

    • Clinical Antecedents of Adolescent-Onset MDD Identified

      Irritability and fear and/or anxiety are significant clinical antecedents of new adolescent-onset major depressive disorder in individuals at familial risk, according to a study published online Dec. 7 in JAMA Psychiatry. More...

    • Age-Related Cataract Linked to Depressive Symptoms

      Age-related cataract is associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms, according to a study published in the December issue of Optometry and Vision Science. More...

    • Depression, Suicide Ideation Prevalent in Medical Students

      The prevalences of depression or depressive symptoms and suicide ideation are 27.2 and 11.1 percent, respectively, among medical students, according to a review published in the Dec. 6 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on medical education. More...

    • 2 Out of 3 Depressed Teens Gain Lasting Benefits From Therapy

      Early treatment of depression may lower risk of future episodes of mood disorder, study finds. More...

    • Antidepressants + Exercise Beneficial in Late-Life Depression

      For older adults with late-life major depression, the combination of antidepressants and physical exercise seems beneficial, especially for individuals with specific characteristics, according to research published online Nov. 21 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. More...

    • Depressed Women Less Likely to Get Best Breast Cancer Care: Study

      Researchers aren't sure why, but urge doctors to monitor these patients carefully. More...

    • Depression on the Rise Among U.S. Teens, Especially Girls

      Report authors point to cyberbullying, social media use as possible causes, but say that hasn't been proven. More...

    • Memantine + Sertraline Effective for Major Depressive Disorder

      The combination of memantine plus sertraline is efficacious for major depressive disorder, according to a study published online Nov. 3 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. More...

    • Depressive Symptoms Linked to Functional Status in CAD

      For patients with stable coronary artery disease, depressive symptoms and cardiac disease severity independently affect patient-reported functional status, according to a study published in the Nov. 1 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology. More...

    • High Rate of Antidepressant Use After Cancer

      Nearly 1 in 5 survivors taking medication for depression or anxiety years later. More...

    • Researchers Find Antidepressant Bupropion Crosses Placenta

      In pregnant women taking the antidepressant bupropion, the drug and its active metabolites cross the placenta to the fetal circulation, according to a study published in the October issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. More...

    • Some Antihypertensives Linked to Depression, Bipolar Risk

      Some antihypertensive medications may increase the risk that patients will be hospitalized for depression and bipolar disorder, according to a study published online Oct. 10 in Hypertension. More...

    • Mom-to-Be's Antidepressant Use May Be Tied to Speech Issues in Child

      Study shows a link but can't prove cause and effect, and experts stress that overall risk is small. More...

    • Depression Can Fuel Heart Disease in Midlife Women: Study

      Psychologist recommends mental health screening at routine checkups. More...

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